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In a first step, he defined monastic astronomy, focusing on rich Benedictine houses in connection with universities, especially Oxford. His next steps included the motivation, textural practices, instruments, readers and audiences of the books written by these monks. All in all, he came to the conclusion that the monks composed didactic books composed in Middle English with a high emphasis on practical teaching.

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These books were read by a broad community of readers who came into communication with these monks by commenting on their works in the same books. The monks characterized their fascination with instruments as well as their links to universities where they had probably gained this knowledge. They wanted to focus on the natural world and manipulate it. With St.

As Henry was criticizing incest marriage of the nobility at the time, he needed to give a positive example with his own marriage, as well. Roach tries to prove this by diplomas which showed the union publicly and the king and queen working together. The ability to control themselves reflected on their royal skills.

Using the example of empress Mathilda, she showed moderation: She did not eat a single morsel until the food had been shared with the whole community. All in all, Welton argues that food was used as a reward to let the wider court see the generosity of the queens and empresses. Thus the meal became not just a physical, but also a political repast.

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Pac was able to show that she probably also brought the Ottonian cult of St. Nicolaus with her to Poland. As her husband Mieszko II was seen as an usurper, her title as queen was more than routine but chosen carefully and was a right which she had to defend when she returned as a widow to the Rhineland.

Her research dealt with the 58 daughters of ruling monarchs in Leon, Castile and Portugal who either became queens themselves, enjoyed high status marriages, remained unmarried dominae or became religious women.

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Diaz concluded that women were important for political succession, but it is still unknown what agency they had in that. Emily J. With the examples of Marie de Coucy and Isabella of Angouleme, she proved that the queen mothers returned to their native country because their position within the royal court was not strong enough or they were needed by their native families. They never left immediately, though, but supported their sons by making truces and settled them in their positions.

The one-dimensional discussion of the queens as mothers should be given up and these queens should be researched in the complex structures of social networks and family roles.

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  4. She summarized the presentations and concluded that there is still much to be done concerning the research of queens and queenship. It was agreed on the idea that women have different sources from men to gain power, this making the difference on how to approach research on queenship. Through impassioned and engaged conversation, speakers addressed how these wide-ranging issues of exploitation, harassment and exclusivity can be fought against through the dismantling and resistance to institutional structures and institutionalised acceptance of such behaviours.

    She further highlighted the connections between academic and wider popular culture, suggesting consciousness of of this wider dissemination was vital in combating problematic and offensive assumptions and behaviours. She went onto to passionately call for institutions like the IMC and Kalamazoo to call out such bigoted behaviour or examples of harassment, starting with public mission statements online that state commitment to supporting those vulnerable.

    She further suggested a commitment to challenging conservative structures like peer-review when doing innovative and exciting scholarship of this kind. Her passionate call to those that can speak to speak up against formal bodies, using senior female academics in the audience as brilliant examples of people who have done exactly this, concluded the individual aspects of the round table. In drawing the threads together from the conversation, and foreshadowing many of the issues and concerns that came out of the questions from a predominately young academic audience, Diane Watt highlighted the importance of mentoring, the creation and dissemination of online resources, the public nature of statements of inclusivity and the importance of diversity within teaching, staff and students as positive responses and potential answers to the many deeply negative issues highlighted and uncovered by the femfog controversy.

    In a session sponsored by the Dictionary of Medieval Names from European Sources, scholars from across disciplines came together to offer complex linguistic analysis of personal names in three very different historical and cultural contexts. Serena Martinolich continued this linguistic analysis with an in-depth look at the complex compounds within Anglo Saxon masculine and feminine names.

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    Januar gewesen, als — dem Heiligentag entsprechend — alle drei Herrscher Karl V. Als letztes Beispiel diente ihm Salzburg, das zugleich der Schwerpunkt seines Dissertationsprojekts ist. Das Paper von Martina Rauchenzauner musste leider entfallen. Excursion: Great Halls of York. Das zweite Ausflugsziel war Barley Hall, wo im Besuch in York im Jahr besichtigen. Even though written by the same hand it was not considered to be a part of the cartulary Becerro Galicano of St.

    Millan written in by most researches. Peterson showed that the Votos in fact was supposed to be part of the cartulary from the beginning.

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    The bilingual charter was copied 30 times until the end of the 15 th century. These copies provide a snapshot of the state of the archive and makes clear how charters were used. Edmunds, which is dating from the early 13 th century. There it was noted that, the charter was used in a conflict. Further copies in cartularies and especially a summary in registers of the 14 th century made the aging charter useful again. In the 15 th century the charters were indexed and finally in the s the charter was translated and thus again available in a readable version.

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    Joanna Tucker Investigating Complex Cartularies: The earliest examples from Scotland presented two of the earliest scottish cartularies, the cartularies of Glasgow and Lidores abbey. Both were started by an initial scribe and are comprised of a section consisting of papal privileges and other sectios with mixt texts, royal charters and lay grants. Later scribes added Glasgow 58, Lindores 36 added further texts. These additions are neither systematic and were often copied only more then a decade after their creation.

    Since many scribes only added one text to the cartulary, Tucker described the cartulary neither as an administrative tool, nor as a history. He stressed instead its function as a working manuscript. Because the whole monastic community was involved in the extension of the cartulary it furthered an institutional self-consciousness and functioned as a shared space for each and every member of the monastery. Organising Daily Life: Benedictine Monasticism between ideal and Practice, 11 th —13 th centuries session Petra Seckinger Eating and drinking in the monastic community of Hirsau: Benedictine Monasticism between Asceticism and Physical Needs stressed in the first part of her paper that according to the rule of saint Benedict the consumption of food and drink should be subject to the right measure mensura.

    While ebriety and gluttony should be avoided, all monks should get what they need according to their age, health and labor. These needs should be taken into consideration by the about who through his discretio was supposed to grant exception. Monks were thus supposed to abandon their own will, while their bodies were subject to a kind of choreography.

    A permanent challenge to abbatial leadership looked at the relationship between spirituality. Abbatial discretio as well as looking at the inner and outer sphere could thus contribute to a better understanding of the worldly and individual character of Benedictine monastic institutions in the 11 th and 12 th century.

    Johan Belaen Benedictine Monasticism and the Papacy: A Bottom-Up Perspective from the low countries wanted to give a new perspective on the question of how benedictine monasteries reacted to the 4 th Lateran Council requiring them to form chapter assemblies. In answering this question Belaen turned to efforts by benedictine monasteries in the 12 th century.

    Belaen stressed that these confraternities filled an institutional vacuum and can be described as congregational organisation. They were not only used by benedictine monasteries, but also — as a prestage of the later order — by Cistercians. After the 4 th Lateran Council monasteries in the diocese of Reims still used the links and organisational means established through confraternities of the 12 th century.

    While in England general chapters were established, in Reims decentral confraternities stayed the mean of organisation, a system that only collapsed after the reforms of pope Gregory IX. This round table discussion dealt with network sciences and medieval sources and had gathered historians as well as a statistical physicist who talked about their experiences. Possible work fields these historians proposed were medieval literature — to see how authors transferred a society in their literature, exile and movement, to trace insular manuscripts thus creating an intellectual network or to see how the members of the nobility were linked to each other as well as to certain spaces.

    All in all, this was a very interesting discussion showing the possibilities of working with network analysis. Going beyond textual analysis specifically the Descriptio Omnes Gentium , he also touched upon the cartography of the Tabula Peutingeriana as well as epigraphy and reliefs to show how ethnonyms were a tool for Romans to both delimit their empire and to the impose a measure of control on the areas beyond it. The barbarian world was one of peoples.

    The clash between the two, especially in the depictions of imperial triumphs, became a pretext for creative yet educational name-calling. Robert Flierman Label or Libel? Starting as generic agents of divine punishment or pagan mirrors for the sinful Roman Christians, the Saxons gradually became more ethnically and geographically defined. In the LHF and eventually in Einhard, they become integrated into the Frankish world, first as rebels, then as potential converts, and finally — after Einhard — as part of the Christian populus.

    Finally, Zsuzsanna Zsidai Turks as Eurasian Nomads in Medieval Islamic Sources took an interesting approach to Islamic narrative sources dealing with the nomads on the steppes peripheral to the Fatimid world. Taking into account Latin and Arabic sources, the speakers highlighted how categories of inclusion and exclusion shaped and modified the narrative strategies employed by comtemporary observers. Drawing on genealogies Ishmaelites, Saracens, Agarenes or prophetic texts esp. Odile Kommer then presented an analysis of 10th century sources from South Arabia, which nurtured a sense of belonging and otherness in medieval Yemen.

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    Looking at the treatment of Persians in narrative and legislative sources, she demonstrated how the definition of various minorities along linguistic, religious or ethnic lines served not only to separate them from the general populace, but also to provide grounds for special protected status under the rule of the imams. Finally, Andrea Nowak presented stereotypes emerging from anecdotes and side-notes in the 13th-century travelogue of Ibn al-Mujawir.

    A Persian travelling through the Arabian Peninsula, his work contains many ethnic stereotypes that he applied to the populations he encountered. Interestingly, in spite of his Persian background, the author did not seem to identify with the Persian migrants he encountered: instead, they also became a separate part of the world he lived in. Andrews ; Zubin Mistry Edinburgh. In this panel, as well as its successor, moments of royal or imperial succession were being scrutinised and re-assessed.

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    4. By focusing on the message the sources wanted to convey as much as on what the rulers involved actually wanted to do, this panel will show the complex interactions between power brokers whenever transfers of authority took place. Juxtaposing the Annales Regni Francorum and the Chronicle of Moissac , he argued that the former source emphasised dynastic continuity as a guarantor for correctio , whereas the latter source tried to show how ecclesiastical history and divine providence were the reason for Carolingian dynastic stability.

      Both sources thus show the various options at the disposal of contemporary observers to combine Christian, Roman and Frankish ideals into a credible justification for succession. Peuckert named Kurt Ranke. In the twentieth century the preparation of an encyclopedia was an expensive project that required substantial inancial support.